undergraduate thesis
Fermented Dairy Products

Irena Dominković (2013)
Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Department of Food Technologies
Sub-department of Milk Technology
Metadata
TitleFermentirani mliječni proizvodi
AuthorIrena Dominković
Mentor(s)Vedran Slačanac (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Mlijeko je biološka tekućina, vrlo složena sastava, žućkastobijele boje, karakteristična okusa i mirisa, koju izlučuje mliječna žlijezda ženki sisavaca ili žene određeno vrijeme nakon poroda. Mlijeko je prva hrana za mlade sisavce, uključujući i dojenčad, ali i vrlo bitna namirnica tijekom cijelog životnog razdoblja čovjeka. Ono sadrži energetski bitne tvari, ali i određene zaštitne tvari koje su neophodne za normalan rast i razvoj mladog organizma predškolske i školske djece, adoloscenata, ali i odraslih. Osim kravljeg mlijeka postoji i ovčje, kozje, bivolje i brojna druga mlijeka. Mlijeko je namirnica koja se može preraditi u mnoge mliječne prerađevine kao što su razne vrste sireva, vrhnje, maslac, fermentirana mlijeka i dr. Fermentacija je proces koji dovodi do biokemijskih promjena organskih sastojaka djelovanja mikroorganizama, koji provode niz oksidacijsko-redukcijskih reakcija, najčešće bez kisika, uz oslobađanje energije. Najvažnije mikrobne kulture za proizvodnju fermentiranih mliječnih proizvoda su: mezofilne kulture BMK1, termofilne kulture BMK, probiotičke kulture BMK i mješovite kulture BMK i kvasaca. Kao i mlijeko, fermentirani mliječni proizvodi su visoke nutritivne vrijednosti. Krajem 19. st. i početkom 20. st. najproučavaniji fermentirani proizvod je jogurt koji je tada osvojio balkansko tržište. Tome su pridonijela istraživanja i radovi poznatog ruskog znanstvenika Ilje Mečnikova, koji je pretpostavio da su Bugari dugovječni zbog dugotrajne potrošnje jogurta. Pored jogurta vrlo značajno fermentirano mlijeko jest mlaćenica. Definicija mlaćenice je vrlo fleksibilna, ovisno o zemlji u kojoj se proizvodi. Otkrića o prisutnosti određenih mikroorganizama koji mogu kolonizirati ljudski probavni trakt pomogla su u očuvanju zdravlja dojenčadi te djece s probavnim infekcijama. BMK, kvasci i plijesni koriste se u širokom spektru proizvodnje fermentiranih mliječnih proizvoda, ali samo neki od njih imaju probiotička svojstva. Fermentirani mliječni proizvodi imaju značajan utjecaj na ljudsko zdravlje. Povoljno utječu na gastrointestinalni trakt, proizvodi koji sadrže bifidobakterije korigiraju poremećaj crijevne mikroflore, sprječavaju putničku dijareju i dr. Probiotici ili "korisne" bakterije su živi mikroorganizmi koji primjenjeni u ljudi djeluju povoljno na domaćina mijenjajući svojstva mikroflore probavnog sustava i unutarnjeg ekosustava. Na kraju možemo zaključiti da je vrlo važna konzumacija mlijeka i fermentiranih mliječnih proizvoda. Oni povoljno utječu na ljudsko zdravlje od prvih dana života pa kroz cijeli period ljudskog postojanja.
Keywordsmilk fermentation fermented dairy product bacteria probiotics yogurt buttermilk
Parallel title (English)Fermented Dairy Products
GranterJosip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of Food Technologies
Sub-department of Milk Technology
PlaceOsijek
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Food Technology
Engineering
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeFood Technology
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. ing. techn. aliment.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2013-09-28
Parallel abstract (English)
Milk is a biological fluid a very complex structure, yellowishwhite in color, characteristic taste and smell, which is excreted from mammary glands of women, a certain time after the birth. Milk is the first food for young mammals, including infants, but also a very important food during the entire lifespan of human. It contains energetically important substances, but also certain protective substances that are essential for normal growth and development of the young organism, preschool and school-age children, adolescents, and adults. Exept cow's milk, there is sheep's, goat's, buffalo's and many other different kinds of milk. Milk is a food that can be processed into many dairy products, such as various types of cheese, cream, butter, fermented milk and others. Fermentation is a process that leads to biochemical changes in organic constituents of action of microorganisms, that conduct series of oxidation-reduction reactions, usually without oxygen, with the release of energy. The most important microbial cultures for the production of fermented dairy products are: mesophilic culture LAB2, thermophilic cultures LAB, probiotic LAB and mixed cultures of LAB and yeasts. Just like milk, fermented dairy products have high nutritional value, too. In late 19th and early 20th century, the most populated fermented product was yogurt, which then has conquered the Balkan markets at the time. That was contributed by the research and work of the famous Russian scientist Ilya Mečnikov, who assumed that the Bulgarians are the long – lived because of the long – term consumption of yogurt. Except the yogurt, very important type of fermented milk is buttermilk. Definition of buttermilk is very flexible, depending on the country where is has been producted. Discoveries of the presence of certain microorganisms that can colonize the human intestinal tract have helped in maintaining the health of infants and children with gastrointestinal infections. Lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds are used in a wide range of fermented dairy products, but only some of them have probiotic properties. Fermented dairy products have a significant impact on human health. They have beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract, products containing bifidobacteria can correct disorder of intestinal microflora , they prevent traveler's diarrhea and others. Probiotics or "beneficial" bacteria are live microorganisms which, when used in humans, have beneficial effect to the host by changing the properties of microflora of the digestive system and internal ecosystem. We can conclude that consumption of milk and fermented dairy products is very important. They have a beneficial effect on human health from our first days of life, and from first days of our life throughout the whole period of the human existence.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)mlijeko fermentacija bakterije probiotici jogurt mlaćenica
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:109:249989
CommitterIvana Šuvak