undergraduate thesis
Microorganisms in food industry

Mirela Matovina (2015)
Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Department of Food and Nutrition Research
Sub-department of Biology and Microbiology
Metadata
TitleMikroorganizmi u prehrambenoj industriji
AuthorMirela Matovina
Mentor(s)Lidija Lenart (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Mikroorganizmi su organizmi mikroskopske veličine koji se mogu uočiti pomoću mikrooskopa. Nalaze se u zemlji, vodi i zraku te mogu zagađivati prehrambene namirnice, a neki se koriste kao sirovina za proizvodnju hrane. Namirnice proizvedene pomoću mikroorganizama su fermentirane namirnice. Za fermentaciju potrebni su supstrat, mikroorganizam i odgovarajući okolišni uvjeti. Fermentacijom se dobivaju proizvodi boljeg okusa i na taj način se proizvod štiti od kvarenja. Proizvodnja hrane pomoću mikroorganizama može biti važan faktor u održavanju života na Zemlji. Mikroorganizmi su genetički vrlo stabilni i zahvaljujući tome moguće je lako rukovanje i uzgajanje. Imaju mogućnost brzog razmnožavanja jer imaju kratko generacijsko vrijeme. Uzgoj mikroorganizama u industriji se može podijeliti na 2 načina, a to su šaržni i kontinuirani uzgoj. Industrijska mikrobiologija se koristi za proizvodnju alkoholnih pića, proizvodnju kruha, sira, sintezu organskih spojeva, antibiotika, insekticida te produkata genetičkog inženjerstva. Industrijskom mikrobiologijom se pomoću mikroorganizama jeftini sirovi materijali pretvaraju u korisne produkte koji se koriste u prehrani ljudi i životinja, a neki produkti se koriste za sprječavanje širenja bolesti ili za poboljšanje kvalitete života. Proizvodnja alkoholnih pića se odvija pomoću kvasaca, dok se proizvodnja alkohola etanola odvija pomoću određenih bakterija kao što su Arthrobacter sp. i gljive Phanaerochaete chrysosporum. Organske kiseline, aminokiseline i vitamini u velikom broju se proizvode pomoću mikroorganizama, koji imaju sposobnost transformacije nekih sterioda u kortikosteron koji pomaže u liječenju artritisa i šoka. Mikrobni enzimi primjenjuju se raznim industrijskim granama uključujući proizvodnju alkoholnih pića, namirnica, detergenata i farmaceutskih proizvoda. Mikrobni polisaharidi upotrebljavaju se kao sredstva za zgušnjavanje u prehrambenim proizvodima, u tintama i kao zamjena za krvnu plazmu, dok mikrobni insekticidi imaju ulogu suzbijanja štetnih insekata koji uništavaju poljoprivredne proizvode ili prenose uzročnike bolesti kod ljudi, biljaka i životinja. Jednostanični proteini mogu pomoći u rješavanju nedostatka hrane u svijetu, bogati su proteinima, brzo rastu, a izvor ovih proteina su razne bakterije, alge i gljive.
Keywordsmicroorganisms fermentation microbial enzymes alcoholic beverages
Parallel title (English)Microorganisms in food industry
GranterJosip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of Food and Nutrition Research
Sub-department of Biology and Microbiology
PlaceOsijek
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Food Technology
Food Microbiology
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeFood Technology
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. ing. techn. aliment.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2015-09-30
Parallel abstract (English)
Microorganisms are organisms of microscopic size which can be seen by microscope. They are found in earth, water and air and can spoil food, but some are used as a resource to make food products. Food which is made with help of microorganisms is called fermentated food. Process of fermentation requires supstrate, microorganism and adequate enviromental conditions. After the food products are fermentated they taste better, but it is also way of preserving food. Producing food with the help of microorganisms can be important part of keeping life on Earth. Microorganisms are genetically very stable and thanks to that its possible easy handling and growing of them. They thave the possibillity of rapid multiplication because of short generation time. Cultivation of microorgansms in industry can be divided in two ways: fed-batch and continuous culture. Industrial microbiology is used for making of alcoholic beverages, bread, cheese, sythesis of organic compounds, antibiotics, insecticides and products of genetic engineering. Industrial microbiology, with help from microorganisms, can transform cheap resorces into useful products which are used in diet and nutrition of people and animals, and some of them are used for preventing disease spread or improving quality of life. Production of alcoholic beverages is carried out with help of yeast, while production of alcohol ethanol is carried out with help of certain bacterias like Arthurobacter sp. and funghi Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Organic acids, aminoacids and vitamins are produced in large amounts with help of microorganisms which also have ability of transformation some of the steroids in corticosterone, which helps in curing arthritis and state of shock. Microbial enzymes are applied in different industrial branches, including production of alcholic beverages, groceries, detergets and pharmaceutical products. Microbial polysaccharides are used as thickeners of food products, inks, and as replacement for blood serum, while microbial insecticides have great role in supression of harmful insects which destroy agricultural products, or transfer disease agents in humans, plants and animals. Single cell proteins, with qualities such as high protein content and fast growth can help in solving problem of food deficiency in world. Their source are bacterias, algae and funghi.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)mikroorganizam fermentacija mikrobni enzimi alkoholna pića
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:109:016248
CommitterIvana Šuvak