undergraduate thesis
Anticarcinogenic Properties of Bioactive Food Compounds

Josipa Fako (2013)
Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Department of Food and Nutrition Research
Sub-department of Nutrition
Metadata
TitleAntitumorska svojstva bioaktivnih komponenata hrane
AuthorJosipa Fako
Mentor(s)Ines Banjari (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Način života i prehrambene navike uvelike utječu na kvalitetu života. Prehrana ima veliki utjecaj na zdravlje pa tako može smanjiti rizik od razvoja karcinoma. Karcinom nastaje izlaganjem zdravih stanica karcinogenima koji uzrokuju nepovratne promjene na DNK. Ako se karcinom ne liječi u prvim fazama dolazi do trajnog oštećenja i širenja zaraženih stanica. Na razvoj karcinoma utječu genetski faktori, a nenasljedni faktori kao što su prehrana, tjelesna masa te fizička neaktivnost mogu se regulirati po potrebi. Hrvatska je po učestalosti karcinoma na 19. mjestu dok je po stopi smrtnosti na 4. mjestu. Karcinomi od kojih ljudi najčešće u Hrvatskoj obolijevaju su karcinom pluća, karcinom dojke odnosno prostate i kolorektalni karcinom. Upravo je kolorektalni karcinom interesantan s obzirom na činjenicu kako se 90% incidentnih slučajeva vog karcinoma direktno povezuju s prehrambenim navikama i promjenama životnog stila. Na povećan razvoj karcinoma veliki utjecaj imaju fizička neaktivnost i povećana tjelesna masa ili pretilost. Rizik od razvoja karcinoma dojke, debelog crijeva i rektuma, endometrija, jednjaka, bubrega i gušterače je povećan kod prekomjerne tjelesne mase. Kako bi se rizik smanjio potrebno je povećati fizičku aktivnost i uravnotežiti prehranu. Preporučeno je konzumiranje namirnica biljnog podrijetla bogatih vlaknima npr. proizvodi od cjelovitog zrna, povrće bogato folatima (brokula, kelj, cvjetača) i voće. Meso je u nekim studijama pozitivno povezano s rizikom od nastanka karcinoma debelog crijeva. Učinak vitamina na karcinogenezu je vrlo jak. Mora se naglasiti kako vitamini prvenstveno imaju ulogu u sprječavanju nastanka karcinoma, ali ne i u liječenju. Nekoliko vitamina kao što su vitamin A, β-karoten, vitamin E i C imaju antioksidativno djelovanje. Antioksidansi sprječavaju oštećenje DNK, stvaranje kancerogenih spojeva u želucu te možemo reći da doprinose sprječavanju razvoja karcinoma. Zaključno može se reći kako se rizik od razvoja karcinoma može smanjiti uravnoteženom prehranom, povećanjem fizičke aktivnosti te izbjegavanjem konzumiranja procesirane, konzervirane i ozračene hrane. Ipak, puno toga ostaje nerazjašnjeno i još se veliki broj istraživanja treba provesti kako bi se utvrdili pozitivni ili pak negativni učinci nekih bioativnih komponenata hrane na karcinogenezu.
Keywordsnutrition cancer vitamins antioxidant activity body weight folate
Parallel title (English)Anticarcinogenic Properties of Bioactive Food Compounds
GranterJosip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of Food and Nutrition Research
Sub-department of Nutrition
PlaceOsijek
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Food Technology
Food Safety and Quality
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeFood Technology
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. ing. techn. aliment.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2013-09-30
Parallel abstract (English)
Lifestyle and eating habits noticeably affect quality of life. Nutrition has a major impact on health and thus may reduce the risk of developing cancer. Exposure healthy cells to carcinogens cause irreversible changes in the DNA therefore, the development of cancer. If the cancer is not treated in the early stages leads to permanent damage and the spread of infected cells. On development of cancer affects genetic factors and non-hereditary factors such as diet, body weight and physical inactivity which can be adjusted as needed. By cancer incidence Croatia is on the 19th place and on the 4th place by cancer mortality rate. Three most common cancers in Croatia are lung cancer, breast cancer i.e. prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer. The final is especially interesting since 90% of all incidents of colorectal cancers are in direct correlation with nutritional habits and lifestyle changes. A major impact on increased cancer development has physical inactivity and increased body weight or obesity. The risk of developing breast cancer, colon and rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney and pancreas is increased due to overweight. To reduce the risk it is necessary to increase physical activity and get balanced diet and making sure the calories intake. It is best to consume plant foods rich in fiber such as whole-grain products, vegetables rich in folate (broccoli, kale, cauliflower) and fruits. In some studies meat is positively associated with the risk of developing colon cancer. The effect of vitamins on carcinogenesis is very strong. It must be emphasized that vitamins primarily play a role in preventing the occurrence of cancer but not in treatment. Several vitamins such as vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin C and E have antioxidant activity. Antioxidants help prevent DNA damage and formation of carcinogenic compounds in the stomach, so they contribute to preventing the development of cancer. In conclusion we can say that the risk of cancer can be reduced by balanced healthy diet, by increasing physical activity and avoiding consumption of processed, canned and irradiated food. Still many questions are left unquestioned, and large number of research has to be done to determine the positive or negative effects of some bioactive food components.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)prehrana karcinom vitamini antioksidacijska aktivnost tjelesna masa folati
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:109:342772
CommitterIvana Šuvak