professional thesis
Aspartame safety assessment in relation with acceptable daily intake

Vedran Poljak (2008)
Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Department of Food Technologies
Sub-department of Carbohydrates Technology
Metadata
TitleProcjena sigurnosti unosa aspartama u odnosu na prihvatljivi dnevni unos
AuthorVedran Poljak
Mentor(s)Drago Šubarić (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Aspartam od svog slučajnog otkrića 1965. godine pa do danas izaziva niz nedoumica, a opisi istoga variraju od idealnog sladila do opasne i otrovne tvari koja se koristi u proizvodnji hrane. Aspartam (metilni ester L-a-aspartil-L-fenilalanina) je 1981. godine odobren od FDA (eng. Food and Drug Administration) te je određen njegov prihvatljivi dnevni unos PDU (eng. Acceptable Daily Intake, ADI). Aspartam je jedinstveno intenzivno sladilo koje se danas koristi pri proizvodnji velikog broja prehrambenih proizvoda, a u probavnom traktu se pod utjecajem esteraza i peptidaza razgrađuje do asparaginske kiseline, fenilalanina i metanola. Tijekom proteklih desetljeća mnogo se istraživao utjecaj aspartama na ljudsko zdravlje, pri čemu su zastupana dva oprečna mišljenja: s jedne strane se pokušalo dokazati toksične učinke aspartama i pripisati mu kancerogena svojstva, dok se s druge strane (prvenstveno prehrambena industrija, odnosno industrija umjetnih sladila) dokazivala apsolutna netoksičnost aspartama u slučaju kada se koristi u odobrenim dozama. Cilj ovog rada bila je procjena rizika unosa aspartama na nacionalnom nivou. Za procjenu izloženosti koristila se dvofazna metoda prikupljanja podataka koja uključuje anketu o navikama potrošača u konzumiranju namirnica koje sadrže nenutritivna sladila i kemijsku analizu grupe namirnica koja sadrže aspartam. Rezultati ovoga istraživanja dobiveni su anketom o potrošnji namirnica koje sadrže aspartam i pretpostavljenom i utvrđenom količinom aditiva u ispitivanim namirnicama ovome radu, prikazani su na osnovi izračuna prihvatljivog dnevnog unosa u pet mogućih opcija unosa aspartama: (a) minimalistički za cjelokupnu populaciju, (b) samo za konzumente hrane koja sadrži aspartame, (c) temeljem procjene dnevnog unosa aspartama na osnovi maksimalnog udjela aspartama dozvoljenog prema «Pravilniku o prehrambenim aditivima» N.N.173/4, (d) procjenom unosa u populaciji konzumenata i maksimalnog dozvoljenog udjela aspartama po skupinama proizvoda te (e) na temelju teorijskog unosa namirnica koje sadrže aspartam i maksimalno dozvoljenog udjela aspartama u pojedinoj grupi namirnica. Karakterizacija rizika se provela usporedbom dobivenog unosa (EDI) s prihvatljivim dnevnim unosom – ADI (EFSA, JECFA, Codex Alimentarius Komisija). Utvrđeni procijenjeni dnevni unos je daleko ispod vrijednosti prihvatljivog dnevnog unosa kako za cjelokupnu populaciju tako i za populaciju koja je konzumirala hranu s aspartamom. Prekoračenje vrijednosti prihvatljivog dnevnog unosa dobiveno je u slučaju kada se za izračun uzeo teorijski unos namirnica koje sadrže aspartam i maksimalno dozvoljen udio aspartama u pojedinoj grupi namirnica (EDIteor./ ADI, 107%). Dobiveni rezultati uspoređeni su sa sličnim istraživanjima u EU i svijetu, i u skladu su s onima u razvijenim europskim zemljama. Na osnovi spoznaja do kojih se pri izradi ovoga rada došlo, nedvojbeno se nameće zaključak da se pri primjeni aspartama u proizvodnji hrane mora voditi računa o dozvoljenim udjelima, a time i o unosu aspartama hranom, posebno u slučaju osjetljivih skupina potrošača.
Keywordsaspartame sweetener nutrition health
Parallel title (English)Aspartame safety assessment in relation with acceptable daily intake
Committee MembersLjiljana Primorac
Drago Šubarić
Tomislav Klapec
Daniela Čačić Kenjerić
GranterJosip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
FACULTY OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of Food Technologies
Sub-department of Carbohydrates Technology
PlaceOsijek
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Food Technology
Food Safety and Quality
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelpostgraduate specialist
Study programmeFood Safety and Quality
Academic title abbreviationuniv. spec. techn. aliment.
Genreprofessional thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2008-03-17
Parallel abstract (English)
From its discovery in 1965 till today, aspartame has caused numerous dilemmas and its descriptions vary from ideal sweetener to dangerous and poisonous substance that is being used for food production. Aspartame, (L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester) was authorized by FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in 1981, when its ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) was defined. Aspartame is unique intensive sweetener that is nowadays used in production of many kinds of food, and in digestive tract it is broken down by esterases and peptidases into aspartic acid, phenylalanine and small amount of methanol. Impact of aspartame on human health has been widely investigated during last few decades, whereat two opposite opinions were represented: one arguing in favor of its toxicity and carcinogenicity, and the other (primarily expressed by food industry, i.e. sweetener industry) trying to prove complete absence of aspartame toxicity if used in approved doses. The aim of this work was to perform aspartame risk assessment on the national level. The two-phase method for data collection was used in order to carry out this risk assessment,. It included survey on consumer habits concerning consumption of foods containing non-nutritive sweeteners, and chemical analysis of foods that contain aspartame. The results of the questionnaire,on consumption of aspartame containing foods, assumed and determined amounts of additives in tested foods, were presented based on calculations of the acceptable daily intakes using five different approaches in assessment of aspartame intake: (a) minimalistic for the total population, (b) including only consumers of foods which contain aspartame, (c) based on the evaluation of daily intakes according to the maximum permitted use levels defined by the " Ordinance on Food Additives" O.G.173/4, (d) combining intake in the population of consumers with maximum permitted use, and (e) combining theoretical intake of foods which contain aspartame with maximum permitted use levels in particular food group. Risk characterization was carried out by comparison of EDI with ADI (EFSA, JECFA, Codex Alimentarius Commission). The determined estimated daily intake is much lower than the acceptable daily intake both for total population, as well as for consumers of aspartame containing foods. The acceptable daily intake was exceeded when theoretical intakes of foods which contain aspartame were combined with maximum permitted use level (EDI teor. / ADI, 107%). The present results were compared to similar reports from the EU and other countries and they were in accordance with the results obtained in developed European countries. Based on the results of this work, it can be undoubtedly concluded that application of aspartame in food production should closely follow the regulations on maximum permitted use levels in foods thus maintaining the intake of the additive, especially in susceptible groups of consumers, within acceptable range.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)sladilo aspartam nutricionizam zdravlje
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:109:136414
CommitterSanda Hasenay